Educational Technology

Educational Technology 1 (Overview)

Educational Technology 1 (ET-1) course

  • Paved the way for the learner to become aware, appreciative and equipped to use educational technology tools ranging from traditional to modern educational media.
  • The learner was oriented towards averting the dangers of dehumanization which technology brings into societies, such as through ideological propaganda, pornography, financial fraud, etc.
  • Showed the four (4) phases of application of educational technology in teaching –and-learning, namely:
    • Setting of learning objectives
    • Designing specific learning experiences
    • Evaluating the effectiveness of the learning experiences vis-à-vis the learning objectives
    • Revision as needed of the whole teaching-learning process, or elements of it.
  • To impart skills in planning, designing, using and evaluating the technology-enriched teaching-learning process.
  • To acquaint learner on basic aspects of community education, functions of the school media center.
  • To introduce the learner to what is recognized as the third revolution in education, the computer .
  • Refined the distinction between educational technology and other concepts, such as:
    • Instructional Technology (use of technology in instruction, different from school management)
    • Educational media (equipment and materials, apart from the teacher himself)
    • Audiovisual Aids (or learning media to stir the senses for more effective learning)

In sum, Educational Technology 1 served:

  • To orient the learner to the pervasiveness of educational technology in society
  • To lend familiarization on how educational technology can be utilized as media for the avenues teaching-learning process in the school
  • To uplift the learner to human learning through the use of learning technology.



  • Concerned with “Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning”.
  • Focused on introducing, reinforcing, supplementing and extending the knowledge and skills to learners so that they can become exemplary users of educational technology.


  • To provide education in the use of technology in instruction by providing knowledge and skills on technology-in-instruction to learners.
  • To impart learning experiences in instructional technology supported instructional planning.
  • To provide education in the use of technology in instruction by providing knowledge and skills on technology-in-instruction to learners
  • To impart learning experiences in instructional technology supported instructional planning.

While the course is primarily intended for the use of student-teachers, it can also be of great use to professional teachers, school administrators, teacher educators and in fact anyone who is interested on how Information Technology can be used to improve not only instruction but the school management program and curriculum. It may be said too, that the study of this course on integrating Information Technology in instruction should not be considered as a formidable task, but rather as a refreshing and exciting study given the idea that all learning should be fun.


Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience


Edgar Dale

Edgar Dale (1900-1985) served on The Ohio State University faculty from 1929 until 1970. He was an internationally renowned pioneer in the utilization of audio-visual materials in instruction. He also made major research contributions in the teaching of vocabulary and testing readability of texts. Jeanne S. Chall, an OSU Ph.D. graduate who went on to become a leading innovator in reading research. Perhaps Professor Dale’s most famous concept was called the “cone of experience,” a graphic depiction of the relationship between how information is presented in instruction and the outcomes for learners.

What is The Cone of Experience?

  • First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching
  • Designed to “show the progression of learning experiences” (Dale (1969) p. 108)   from the concrete to the abstract.


Concrete vs. Abstract Learning

Concrete Learning Abstract Learning
  • First-hand experiences
  • Learner has some control over the outcome
  • Incorporates the use of all five senses


  • Difficulty when not enough previous experience or exposure to a concept
  • Every level of the Cone uses abstract thinking in some way



Influences on the Cone of Experience

  • Hoban, Hoban & Zisman’s Visual Media Graph
    • Value of educational technology is based on their degree of realism


  • Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Instruction
    • Three levels in the learning process
      • Enactive – direct experience
      • Iconic – representation of experience
      • Symbolic – words or visual symbols
    • The process of learning must begin in concrete experiences and move toward the abstract if mastery is to be obtained.

Intentions of the Cone of Experience

Dale (1969) wrote that

  • May lead to a more useful way of thinking about audio visual materials and their application in the classroom.
  • The levels of the Cone are interactive.
  • As one moves up the Cone there is not necessarily an increase in difficulty but rather an increase in abstract thought.


Misconceptions of the Cone

  • All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone.
  • One kind of experience on the Cone is more useful than another.
  • More emphasis should be put on the bottom levels of the Cone.
  • The upper level of the Cone is for older students while the lower levels are for younger students.
  • It overemphasizes the use of instructional media.


Levels of the Cone of Experiences

  • Enactive – Direct Experiences
    • Direct, Purposeful
    • Contrived
    • Dramatized


  • Iconic – Pictorial Experiences
  • Demonstrations
  • Study trips
  • Exhibits
  • Educational television
  • Motion pictures
  • Recordings, radio, still pictures


  • Symbolic – highly abstract experiences
  • Visual symbols
  • Verbal symbols

Direct and Purposeful Experiences

  • Direct, first hand experiences
  • Have direct participation in the outcome
  • Use of all our senses



  • Working in a homeless shelter
  • Tutoring younger children


Contrived Experiences

  • Models and mock-ups
  • “editing of reality”
  • Necessary when real experience cannot be used or are too complicated



  • Use of a pilot simulator
  • Mockup of an auto plant to show the auto making process


Dramatized Experiences

  • Reconstructed experiences
  • Can be used to simplify an event or idea to its most important parts
  • Divided into two categories
  • Acting – actual participation (more concrete)
  • Observing – watching a dramatization take place (more abstract)


Iconic Experiences on the Cone

  • Progressively moving toward greater use of imagination
  • Successful use in a classroom depends on how much imaginative involvement the method can illicit from students
  • Involves:


  • Demonstrations
  • Study trips
  • Exhibits
  • Motion pictures
  • Educational television
  • Radio, recordings, and still pictures



  • Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or process
  • Shows how certain things are done



  • How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich
  • How to play the piano
  • How to lift a fingerprint


Study Trips

  • Watch people do things in real situations
  • Observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom


  • Examples:
  • Civil War Re-enactment
  • Old World Wisconsin
  • Class trip to Washington D.C.



  • Something seen by a spectator
  • Two types:
  • Ready made
    • Museum
    • Career fair


  • Home-made
    • Classroom project
    • National History Day competition

Educational Television and Motion Pictures

Television Motion Pictures
—  Bring immediate interaction with events from around the world—  Edit an event to create clearer understanding than if experienced actual event first hand

—  Example:

TV coverage of 9/11

—  Can omit unnecessary or unimportant material—  Used to slow down a fast process

—  Viewing, seeing and hearing experience

—  Can re-create events with simplistic drama that even slower students can grasp



Recordings, Radio, and Still Pictures

  • Can often be understood by those who cannot read
  • Helpful to students who cannot deal with the motion or pace of a real event or television.



  • Time Life Magazine
  • Listening to old radio broadcasts
  • Listening to period music


Symbolic Experiences

  • Very little immediate physical action
  • Difficult only if one doesn’t have enough direct experience to support the symbol
  • Used at all levels of the Cone in varying importance
  • Involves:
  • Visual symbols
  • Verbal symbols



Visual Symbols

  • No longer involves reproducing real situations
  • Chalkboard and overhead projector the most widely used media
  • Help students see an idea, event, or process



  • Chalkboard
  • Flat maps
  • Diagrams
  • Charts


Verbal Symbols

How could Dale’s Cone of Experience have changed this lesson for Calvin?

What instructional media could his teacher have used to have helped Calvin find meaning in this lesson?


Concrete or Abstract Learning?

What does the Cone mean for Instruction?

  • Dale (1938) taught teachers that they should help their students learn how the media affects us, and to critically evaluate it.
  • Teachers must evaluate the benefit of the learning vs. the amount of time required in the lesson how to effectively use instructional media to helping students move from concrete to abstract thought.







Other Instructional Technology Learning Theories

  • Anchored Instruction
    • Developed by John Bransford at Vanderbilt University
    • Principles:
  1. Learning and teaching activities should be anchored around a case-study or problem
  2. Curriculum materials should allow students to explore a lesson through instructional media.


  • Elaboration Theory
    • Charles Reigeluth (Indiana University) and his colleagues in the late 1970s.
    • Elaboration theory is an instructional design theory that emphasizes the creation of a learning sequence from simple to more complex content in order to create deeper understanding.



Technology integration is the use of technology resources — computers, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, the Internet, etc. — in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a school. Technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent. (Schaffner, 2010).


Necessary equipment for technology integration:

  1. Computers
  2. Software
  3. Internet
  4. Effective instructional setting
  5. Curriculum
  6. Students
  7. Teachers with a love of technology
  8. Supportive administration


What are the benefits to teachers and students?

  1. Students become engaged in the curriculum
  2. Students are challenged intellectually
  3. Students develop their analysis and problem solving skills
  4. Students learn how to collaborate with others
  5. Students can connect with experts in what they are studying
  6. Ability to differentiate instruction and assessment
  7. Ability to teach students real world skills




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