A REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 1
The Education Technology 1 (ET-1) course has truly paved the way for the learner to become aware, appreciative and equipped to use educational technology 1 tools ranging from traditional to modern educational media.
Truly, the foundation for a truly satisfying exposure to educational technology has been firmly laid down by the ET- 1 course, starting with the through treatment of the history of educational technology, quality education, and the roles of ET in the 21th millennium.
In ET-1, the learner was also oriented towards averting the dangers of dehumanization which technology brings into societies, such as through ideological propaganda, pornography, financial fraud, and other exploitative use of technology. Sad to say, these dangers continue to affect peoples and cultures while widening the gap between rich and poor countries.
On the application of educational technology to instruction. Educational technology 1 showed the four phases of application of educational technology in teaching- and- learning, namely: (a) setting of learning objectives (b) designing specific learning experiences (c) evaluating the effectiveness of the learning experiences vis-à-vis the learning objectives, and (d) revision as needed of the whole teaching-learning process, or elements of it, for further improving future instructional activities.
Adding to the technology sophistication of the learner, educational technology 1 fitting refined the distinction between educational technology and other concepts, such as instructional technology (which is the use of technology and instruction, different from school management), educational media (or equipment and materials, apart from the teacher himself), audio visual aids (or learning media to stir the senses for more effective learning).
In sum, educational technology 1 served:
• To orient the learner to the pervasiveness of educational technology in society.
• To lend familiarization on how educational technology can be utilized as media for the avenues teaching-learning process in this school.
• To uplift the learner to human learning through the use of learning technology.
• To impart skills in planning, designing, using and evaluating the technology-enriched teaching-learning process.
• To acquaint learners on the basic aspects of community education, functions of the school media center, and finally.
• To introduce the learner to what is recognized as the third revolution in education, the computer.
AN OVERVIEW: EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 2
Educational technology 2 is concerned with “Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning.” Specifically this is focused on introducing, reinforcing, supplementing and extending the knowledge and skills to learners so that they can become exemplary users of educational technology. Mainly directed to student teachers, also professional teachers who may wish to update their knowledge of educational technology, it is our goal that this course can help our target learners to weave technology in teaching with software (computer programmed learning materials) becoming a natural extension of their learning tools.
Necessarily, Educational Technology 2 will involve a deeper understanding of the computer a well as hands-on application of computer skills. But this is not to say that the goal of the course is to promote computer skills. Rather, the course is primarily directed at enhancing teaching-and-learning through technology integration.
In essence, the course aims to infuse technology in the student-teachers training, helping them to adapt and meet rapid and continuing technological changes particularly in the thriving global information and communication technology (ICT) environment.
More specifically, the course objectives are:
• To provide education in the use of technology in instruction by providing knowledge and skills on technology integration-in-instruction to learners
• To impart learning experiences in instructional technology-supported instructional planning
• To acquaint students on information technology or IT- related learning theories with the computer as a tutor
• To learn to use and evaluate computer-based educational resources
• To engage learners on practical technology integration issues including managing IT classrooms, use of the internet for learning, cooperative learning through the use of information technology, etc.
• To inculcate higher level thinking and creativity among students while providing them knowledge of IT-related learning theories
While the course is primarily intended for the use of student-teachers, it can also be of great use to professional teachers, school administrators, teacher educators, and in fact anyone who is interested on how information technology can be used to improve not only instruction but the school management and curriculum.
It may be said, too, that the study of this course on integrating Information Technology in instruction should not be considered as a formidable task, but rather as a refreshing and exciting study given the idea that all learning should be fun.
IT FOR HIGHER THINKING SKILLS AND CREATIVITY
In the traditional information absorption model of teaching, the teacher organizes and presents information to students-learners. He may use a variety of teaching resources to support lesson such as chalkboard, videotape, newspaper or magazine and photos. The presentation is followed by discussion and the giving of assignment. Among the assignments may be a research on a given topic. This teaching approach has proven successful for achieving learning outcomes following the lower end of Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application are concerned.
But a new challenge has arisen for today’s learners and this is not simply to achieve learning objectives but to encourage the development of students who can do more than receive, recall, recite and apply the knowledge they have acquired. Today, students are expected to be not only cognitive, but also flexible, analytically and creative. In this lesson, there are methods proposed by the use of computer-based as an integral support to higher thinking skills and creativity.
Higher Level Learning Outcomes
To define higher level thinking skills and creativity, we may adopt a framework that is a helpful synthesis of many models and definitions on the subject matter. The framework is not exhaustive but a helpful guide for the teacher’s effort to understand the learner’s higher learning skills.
|Complex Thinking Skills||Sub-Skills|
|Focusing||Defining the problem, goal/objective-setting, brainstorming|
|Information Gathering||Selection, recording of data of information|
|Remembering||Associating, relating new data with old|
|Analyzing||Identifying idea constructs, patterns|
|Generating||Deducing, inducting, elaborating|
|Evaluating||Setting criteria, testing idea, verifying outcomes, revising|
Figure 4 – Thinking Skills Framework
The Upgraded Project Method
In this modern day, the teachers are now guided on their goal to help students achieve higher level thinking skills and creativity beyond the ordinary.
We know the fact that the ordinary classroom is awfully lack in instructional toolkits; as a result the teacher might have a difficulty to bring the students to the higher domains of learning and achieving, so the project method is suggested.
Teachers assign the students to work on projects with depth, complexity duration and relevance to the real word.
Project is utilized because students need to make the most of the decisions about what to put inside their project, how to organize their information and ideas and how to communicate their result effectively.
Upgraded Project Method
In here, there is a tighter link between the uses of projects for simply coming up with products to have the students undergo the process of higher thinking skills under the framework of the Constructivist Paradigm.
In this new project method, the students are advised to use computer application and high technology in doing their projects.
It emphasize on how the students construct knowledge. The students, not the teacher are the one who make decisions about what to put into the project, how to organize information, how to package the outcomes for presentation and the like.
In doing projects, there are two things that are involved: the process and the product.
Process- refers to the steps, effort and experiences in project completion.
Product- is the result or the end point of the process.
As a future teacher, we must take into consideration the process in every project because in the process, the students were able to think and apply their creativity as results they have develop their higher order thinking skills.
Four Types of I-T Based Projects
● Resource-based project
● Simple creations
● Guided hypermedia
● Web design project
THE COMPUTER AS A TUTOR
The computer is one of the wonders of human ingenuity, even in its original design in the 1950’s to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operations. With the invention of the microcomputer (now also commonly referred to PCs or personal computers), the PC has become the tool for programmed instruction.
Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become affordable to small business, industries and homes. They saw its potential for individualization in learning, especially as individualized learning is a problem since teachers usually with a class of forty or more learners. They therefore devised strategies to use the computer to break the barriers to individualized instruction.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving the teacher of many activities in his personal role as classroom tutor. It should be made clear, however, that the computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller. Even with the available computer and CAI software, the teacher must:
• Insure that students have the needed knowledge and skills for any computer activity.
• Decide the appropriate learning objectives.
• Plan the sequential and structured activities to achieve objectives.
• Evaluate the students’ achievement by ways of tests the specific expected outcomes.
On the other hand, the students in CAI play their own roles as learners as they:
• Receive information.
• Understand instructions for the computer activity.
• Retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity.
• Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning.
During the computer activity proper in CAI the computer, too, plays its roles as it:
• Act as a assort of tutor (the role traditional played by the teacher.
• Provides a learning environment.
• Delivers learning instruction.
• Reinforces learning through drill-and-practice.
• Provides feedback.
Today, educators accept the fact that the computer has indeed succeeded in providing an individualized learning environment so difficult for a teacher handling whole classes. This is so, since the computer is able to allow individual students to learn at their own pace, motivate learning through a challenging virtual learning environment, assist students through information needed during the learning process, evaluate students responses through immediate feedback during the learning process, and also give the total score to evaluate the student’s total performance
In the previous lesson, we saw how the computer can act as a tutor particularly along a behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning. But we also saw certain computer software programs have been developed to foster higher thinking skills and creativity.
In this lesson, we shall again look at the computer, but this time from another perspective the computer as the teacher’s handy tool. I can in fact support theconstructivist and social constructivist paradigms of constructivist learning.
Constructivist was introduced by Piaget (1991) and Bruner (1990). They gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized information from which they can induce ideas and principles. Students are also asked to apply discovered knowledge to new situations, a process for making their knowledge to real life situations.
While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social constructivism. This is an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social, historical and cultural contexts, in effect; this is to say that the learner who interprets knowledge has a predetermined point of view according to the social perspective of the community or society he lives in.
The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is affected by social influences. He therefore suggested the interaction process in learning. The more capable adult (teacher or parent) or classmate can aid or complement what the learner sees in a given class project. In addition Dewey sees language as a medium for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey human learning is really human language that occurs when students socially share, build and agree upon meaning and knowledge.
|Learning framework||Constructivism||Social Constructivism|
|Assumption||Knowledge is constructed by the individual.||Knowledge is constructed within a social context.|
|Definition of Learning||Students build their own Learning.||Students build knowledge influenced by the social context.|
|Learning Strategies||Gather unorganized information to create new concept/principle.||Exchange and share form ideas, stimulates thinking.|
|General Orientation||Personal discovery of knowledge.||Students discuss and discover meanings.|
|Example||8*5-8+8+8+8+8||Two alternative job offers
Option 1-8 hrs./day for 6 days/ week.
Option 2- 9 hrs./day for 5 days/ week.
The Computer’s Capabilities
Given its present-day speed, flexibility and sophistication, the computer can provide access to information, foster creative social knowledge- building, and enhance the communication of the achieved project package. Without the computer, today’s learners nay still be assuming the tedious tasks of low-level information gathering, building and new knowledge packaging. But this is not so, since the modern computer can help teacher- and – students to focus on more high level cognitive tasks.
Based on the two learning theories, the teacher can employ the computer as an:
• An information Tool
• A communication Tool
• A constructive Tool
• As co- constructive Tool
• A situating Tool
Informative Tool. The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various forms, such as text, graphics, sound, and video. Even multimedia encyclopedias are today available on the Internet.
The Internet itself provides an enormous database from which user can access global information resources that includes the latest news, weather forecasts, airline schedule, sports development, entertainment news and features, as well as educational information directly useful to learners. The Internet on education can be sourced for kinds of educational resources on the Internet.
Along the constructivist point of view, it is not enough for learners to download relevant information using the computer as an information tool. Students can used gathered information for composition or presentation projects as may be assigned by the teacher. Given the fact that the Internet can serve as a channel for global communication, the computer can very well be the key tool for video telecon ferencing sessions.
Constructive tool. the computer itself can be used for manipulating information,visualizing one’s understanding, and building new knowledge. the Microsoft word computer program itself is a desktop publishing software that allows users to organize and present their dies in attractive formats.
Co-constructive tools. Students can use constructive tools to wwork. cooperatively and construct a shared understanding of new knowledge. one way of co-construction is the use of the electronic whitebaord where students may post notices to a shared document/ whitebaord. students may also co-edit the same document from thier homes.The computer-supported intentional learning environments (CSILE) is an example of an integrated environment developed by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. within CSILE, students can enter their ideas in notes and respond to each others ideas. Manifest in the the student-generated database are higher level thinking processes-explaining, problem so living/finding, expertise and development, literacy improvement.
By means of virtual reality (RS) extension system, the computer can create 3-D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a virtual environment. A flight simulation program is an example of a situating tool which places the user in a simulated flying environment. Mulch-User Domains or Dungeons (MUDs), MUD object-oriented (MOOs), and Multi-User Shared hallucinations (MUSHs) are example os situating systems. MUDs and MOOs are mainly text\based virtual reality environments on the internet. When users log on to a MOO environment, they may interact with the virtual reality(such as by writing on a notice board) through simple text-based commands. A school-to-school or clasroom-tocalsrrom environment is possible whereby the user can choose to walk around the campus talk with other users who are logged to the same site.to caution users, the computer as a situating tool is news and still undergoing further research and development.
THE SOFTWARE AS AN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE
Whenever people think about computers, they are most likely thinking about the computer machine such as the television-like monitor screen, the keyboard to type on , the printer which produces copies of text –and-graphics material, and the computer housing called “the box” which contains the electronic parts and circuits (the central processing unit) that receives/stores data and directs computer operations. The computer machine or hardware is naturally an attention- getter.
It’s more difficult to realize, however, that the computer hardware can hardly be useful without the program or system that tells what the computer machine should do. This is also called the software.
There are two kinds of software:
1. The system software. This is the operating system that is found or bundled inside all computer machines.
2. The application software. This contains the system that commands the particular task or solves a particular problem.
In turn the applications software maybe:
(a) a custom software that is made for specific tasks often by large corporations, or
(b) a commercial software packaged for personal computers that help with a variety of tasks such as writing papers, calculating numbers, drawing graphs, playing games, and so much more.
Also referred to as a program, Microsoft Windows or Windows for short is an operating environment between the user and the computer operating system. Also called a shell, it is a layer that creates the way the computer should work. Windows uses a colorful graphics interface (called GUI-pronounced “gooee”) that can be seen on the computer screen or monitor whenever the computer is turned on.
The user can work with on-screen pictures (icons) and suggestions (menus) to arrive at the desired software. Windows 95 (now improved with Windows 2003 and 2007) is a software designed for Microsoft Windows. Actually, Windows is in itself a self-contained operating system which provides
• User convenience – just click a file name to retrieve data or click from program to program as easy as changing channels in your TV screen.
• A new look – fancy borders, smooth and streamlined text fonts.
• Information center – Windows put all communications activities (e-mail, downloads etc. in a single screen icon); adapts/configures the computer for the Internet.
• Plug and play – configures the computer with added components, such as for sound and video.
Instructional software can be visited on the Internet or can be bought from software shops or dealers. The teacher through his school should decide on the best computer-based instructional (CBI) materials for the school resource collection. But beware since CBIs need much improvement, while web-based educational resources are either extremely good or what is complete garbage. In evaluating computer-based educational materials, the following can serve as guidelines:
• Be extremely cautious in using CBIs and ‘free’ Internet materials.
• Don’t be caught up by attractive graphics, sound, animation, pictures, video clips and music forgetting their instructional worth.
• Teachers must evaluate these resources using sound pedagogical principles.
• Among design and content elements to evaluate are: the text legibility, effective use of color schemes, attractive layout and design, and easy navigation from section-to-section (such as from game to tutorial to drill-and-practice section).
• Clarity in the explanations and illustrations of concepts and principles.
• Accuracy, coherence, logic of information.
• Absence of biased materials (e.g. gender bias or racial bias).
From the Educational Technology I course, the student has already become aware of multimedia or an audiovisual package that includes more than one instructional media (means of knowing) such as text, graphics, audio animation and video clip.
Hypermedia is nothing but multimedia, but this time packaged as educational computer software where information is presented and student activities are in a virtual learning environment. Most Educational IT application is hypermedia and these include:
● Tutorial Software Packages
● Knowledge Webpage’s
● Simulation Instructional Games
● Learning Project Management and Others
The presentation of information-learning activities in hypermedia is said to be sequenced in a non-linear manner, meaning that the learner may follow his path of activities thus providing an environment of learner autonomy and thinking skills. This fact makes it therefore important to understand hypermedia in the educational context in order to ensure their successful integration in the teaching-learning process.
Characteristics of Hypermedia Applications
There are two important features that are outstanding among other features that characterize the hypermedia software:
1. Learner control.
This means the learner makes his own decisions on the path, flow or events of instruction. The learner has control on such aspects, as sequence, pace, content, media, feedback, etc. that he/she may encounter in the hypermedia learning program.
2. Learner wide range of navigation routes.
For the most part, the learner controls the sequence and pace of his path depending on his ability and motivation. He has the option to repeat and change speed, if desired. Of course, at the start, the learner may choose the learning activities he prefers. Meanwhile, the teacher has the prerogative to determine suitable learning objectives.
The learner also has a wide range of navigation routes such as by working on concepts he is already familiar with. They may even follow a linear or logical path, even if the previous activity is half-completed. He may explore other sections opting to return or complete the previous activity.
THE INTERNET AND EDUCATION
The internet, also simply called the NET, is the largest and far-flung networks system –of-all-system. Surprisingly, the internet is not really a network but a loosely organized collection of about 25,000 networks accessed by computers in the planet. It is astonishing to know that no one owns the internet. It has no central headquarters, no centrally offered services, and no comprehensive online index to tell users what information is available in the system.
How is everything coordinated through the Internet? This is done through a standardized protocol (or set of rules for exchanging data) called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). To gain access to the Internet, the computer must be equipped with what is called a Server which has special software (program) that uses the Internet protocol. Originally developed and still subsidized by the United States government, the Internet connect not only commercial, industrial, scientific establishments but all other sectors including education and its libraries, campuses, and computer centers.
The great attraction of the Internet is that once the sign-up fees are paid, there are no extra charges. Electronic mail, for example, is free regardless of the amount of use. In contrast, individuals using the Internet on their own personal computers must pay ongoing monthly fees to whoever is their service provider.
Getting around the Net
The vast sea of information now in the Internet, including news and trivia, is an overwhelming challenge to those who wish to navigate it. Every day, the Net user- population and the available information continue to grow, and new ways are continuously being developed to tour the Internet.
The most attractive way to move around the Internet is called browsing. Using a program called a browser, the user can use a mouse to point and click on screen icons to surf the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web (the Web), an Internet’s subset of text, images, and sounds are linked together to allow users to access data or information needed.
The future of the Internet seems limitless. Already its complexity has spawned and continue to spawn Net sites including new demand for services to business, industries, science, government, and even homes. Many experts predict that he Internet is destined to become the centerpiece of all online communications on the planet and in some future time in the solar system using interplanetary satellite communication stations.
A view of educational uses of the Internet
Today, even elementary school graders in progressive countries like the United States are corresponding via e-mail with pen pals in all 50 states. They ask probing questions like, “What is your state’s most serious problems,” or How much does pizza cost in your state? This educational activity prodded y their schools are paying dividends from increasing the pupil’s interest in Geography to a greater understanding of how people live in large cities and other places in the United States or the world.
Educational software materials have also developed both in sophistication and appeal. There is now a wider choice from rote arithmetic or grammar lessons to discovery and innovation projects. But the real responsibility today is connecting with the world outside homes, classrooms, and Internet cafes. And today schools are gearing up to take advantage of Internet access, where they can plug into the Library of Congress, make virtual visits to famous museums in the world, write to celebrities, and even send questions to heads of states.
Much Like field studies in teacher education, educational technology 2 offers students the experiential process of adapting to technology integration with in a student-centered paradigm. This is the practicum phase of the course at the end of the more theoretical lessons or inserted between lessons.
The practicum phase consist of hands-on computer tutorial which the students teacher or professional teacher-trainee will need to make him or her capable.
The essential requirements for the ET 2 practicum phase will be:
• A computer laboratory/ special computer classroom with adequate sets of computers for hands-on. • Participation of computer laboratory tutors/ assistants- as the teachers technical assistants- to assist the learners in the use of computers and its various programs.
• Assigned numbers of hours in confirmity with the course requirements. Tutorials are preferably done during week-ends in order to provide continous hours of computer hands-ons trainings.
The practicum phase consists in:
1. Basic microsoft word (6 hrs)
The tutorial familiarities each individual learner to the basic of microsoft word. They will learn to use menus and toolbars and the software. They will be taught to type, edit and format text, sentences and paragraphs.
• Microsoft word menus and toolbars
• Creating, formatting and editing documents
• Assigning page layouts
• Inserting tabs and tablets
Upon successful completion the learner shall be able to:
• Create. Open and save document files
• Insert graphic tables and charts in documents
• Manage files and folder
• Apply format on the text,sentences and paragraphs
• Inter link documents
• Create standard documents using templates
2. Microsoft PowerPoint (6hrs)
The tutorial is a familiarization on the basics of microsoft powerpoint. It will train the learners to prepare, PowerPoint presentations to enhance the teaching of subjects.
• PowerPoint fundamentals
• Enhancement of PowerPoint presentations with the use of graphics, chats and audio.
• Using templates and masters.
• Presenting and printing a slide show.
At the end of the tutorial, the learner will be able to:
• Create and open PowerPoint presentation
• Insert objects, charts and video in the powerpoint presentation.
• Use templates to enhance presentations.
3. Internet as tool of inquiry (4hrs)
The tutorial will facilitate the findings of sources of information appropriate to a learning tasks.
• Accessing the internet
• Use of internet tools
• Search techniques
At the end of the tutorial. The learner will be able to:
• Search and retrieve information from the web.
• Acquire skills in locating appropriate information.
• Acquire abilities to use internet tools.
• Gain knowledge of search techniques.
• Learn the ability to execute the search.
In sum, educational technology 2 promises to bring the student teacher and the professional teacher trainee to the challenge of a new age- integrating technology in the teaching-learning process. The brisk face of technology advancement and innovation continues, but ET 2 is a preparation to bring our teachers to more ahead with their uses of technology in the classroom.
Overall,the Filipino teachers shall be empowered to meet the technology challenges of the 21st century digital age.